Archives mensuelles : avril 2016

Piața Unirii (Timișoara)

Piața Unirii (deutsch Platz der Vereinigung), umgangssprachlich Domplatz (rumänisch Piața Domului, ungarisch Dóm-tér), ist der älteste Platz der Stadt Timișoara in Rumänien. Sie liegt im alten Festungskern Cetate und ist von repräsentativen, meist in Pastellfarben gehaltenen Kirchen und Palais, die vorwiegend während des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts im Barockstil errichtet wurden, gesäumt.

Der Name des Platzes geht auf den Beschluss der Volksversammlung der Banater Schwaben im Jahr 1919 zurück, in der 40.000 Teilnehmer für die Vereinigung ihrer Gebiete mit Rumänien abstimmten. Im Vorfeld waren bereits rumänische Truppen auf dem Platz eingetroffen. Zu Zeiten des Königreichs Ungarn hieß er offiziell Losonczy-tér. Namensgebend war hierbei István Losonczy, der 1552 als Festungskommandant die Stadt gegen die Truppen des Osmanischen Reichs verteidigte. Vor dem Österreichisch-Ungarischen Ausgleich von 1867 wurde er Hauptplatz genannt.
Dreifaltigkeitssäule und der Dom zu Timișoara
Piața Unirii in Timișoara

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, zur linken das Serbische Bischofsheim, zur rechten die Serbisch-Orthodoxe Kathedrale.
Der Barockpalast an der Piața Unirii
Haus Brück
Dominiert wird der Platz vom Dom zu Timișoara, der zwischen 1732 und 1763 errichteten Kathedrale des Bistums Timișoara. Zuvor wurde auf dem Gelände des Platzes bereits Markt abgehalten. Während des 18. Jahrhunderts war es das kommerzielle Zentrum der Stadt und Veranstaltungsort für militärische Aufmärsche und religiöse Zeremonien. Neben dem Dom säumen zahlreiche historische Baudenkmäler den Platz, wie der Barockpalast (auch Komitatshaus oder Prefectura Veche), das Haus mit den Löwen, die Serbisch-Orthodoxe Kathedrale, sowie der Serbische Bischofssitz. Im Zentrum des Platzes befinden sich die Dreifaltigkeitsstatue und ein über 400 Meter tiefer Artesischer Brunnen, aus dem schwefelhaltiges Thermalwasser sprudelt. Sehenswert sind auch die benachbarten Häuser Brück und Emmer. Beide sind nach den Plänen des Architekten László Székely in den Jahren 1910 und 1908 im Jugendstil erbaut worden bogner jacken 2016.
Hervorzuheben sind ebenso zwei weitere Häuser auf der Nordwestseite des Platzes, die von Francis Joseph Barracks gebaut wurden, wie auch die mit typisch ungarischen Volksdekorationselementen versehene ehemalige Diskont Bank, die zwischen 1906 und 1908 von den Architekten Marcell Komor und Dezső Jakab im Süd-Westen des Platzes errichtet wurde.
Heute wird die Piața Unirii von vielen Restaurants, Cafés und im Sommer von Schanigärten gesäumt. Gelegentlich werden für Stadtfeste, Live-Konzerte und ähnliche Anlässe auf dem Platz Bühnen aufgebaut.
Unweit des Domplatzes befinden sich noch einige repräsentative Gebäude wie das Nikolaus Lenau Lyzeum auf der Gheorghe-Lazăr-Str., die Große Synagoge auf der Mărăsești-Str. oder der Dikasterialpalast auf der Prinz-Eugen-Str.
An der Südseite des Platzes befand sich das erste Hotel Timișoaras, Zu den sieben Kurfürsten. Diese Wirtschaft war unter anderem Gegenstand des Romans Der große Schwabenzug von Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn.
Am 3. Oktober 2009 kam es auf dem Platz am Rande eines Fußballspiels der UEFA Europa League zwischen dem FC Timișoara und Dinamo Zagreb (0:3) zu Ausschreitungen, bei denen 160 Festnahmen verzeichnet wurden.
45.7579521.22901494Koordinaten: 45° 45′ 29″ N, 21° 13′ 44″ O

Prime version

In the art world the prime version of a work of art which exists in a number of versions is the version which is known or believed to have been the first to be produced. Many artworks produced in media such as painting or carved sculpture which create unique objects are in fact repeated by their artists

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, often several times. It is regarded as a matter of some importance both by art historians and the art market to establish which version has « priority », that is to say was the original work. The presumption usually is that the prime version is the finest, and perhaps the most carefully done, though some later versions can be argued to improve on the originals. In many periods the later « repetitions » were often produced by the workshop of the master, with varying degrees of supervision and direct attention from him. This was especially the case with official portraits of monarchs and politicians, which in the Early Modern period were often ordered in large numbers of versions from the court artist as diplomatic gifts.

In the case of official portraits the later creation of replica versions was likely to have been anticipated from the start, as in other types of art such as printmaking, but in other types of painting, especially history painting, the normal presumption, in the past as today, was that each work was a unique creation. This was a matter of some importance to the owner, and there was evidently in some periods a general understanding that a work should not be replicated or copied without the permission of the owner of the prime version, which needed to be asked for carefully and was not always given. In many periods « replicas were the direct product of collecting, as collectors have always preferred recognizable masterpieces to what is offbeat ». This was true of 17th century Rome, where artists such as Orazio Gentileschi and Bernardo Strozzi routinely made replicas, and others such as Guercino and Guido Reni sometimes did, as of Victorian London, where artists such as William Powell Frith often painted one or more replica versions of their successes. In Frith’s case the replicas were painted many years after his first versions, when his newer work was achieving less success. The French painter Charles Landelle (fr) recorded no fewer than 32 versions of his Femme Fellah, an Orientalist hit at the Paris Salon of 1866. Pieces of sculpture made by casting processes that allow the original model to be reproduced several times are rather different; though the first in an edition (today often kept by the artist) has some added prestige, it is expected that a number of versions will be made.
An example of a work now only known from a replica (in the Galleria Borghese in Rome) and studies is Aeneas and his Family Fleeing Troy, the only secular history painting by Federico Barocci

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. The prime version was given in 1586 by Francesco Maria II, the last Duke of Urbino, to Rudolph II, Holy Roman Emperor in Prague, and was later looted by the Swedes. It was taken to Rome by Queen Christina of Sweden, passed to the Orleans collection in Paris, and finally sold at auction in London for 14 guineas in 1800 (the price probably reflecting the poor condition some sources mention), since when its whereabouts are unknown. The Rome version was painted in 1598, presumably for Cardinal Scipio Borghese.
In some cases it is evident which version of a work is prime, especially if there is a full provenance including a contract or other documentation of the original commission; a contract for a copy will normally make that clear. Otherwise experts will look both at the overall quality of the work, and also technical elements such as detailed underdrawing and pentimenti (changes of mind) that indicate that the artist was finalizing his idea of the work as he proceeded. Infrared and X-ray photography are among the scientific techniques that may help in discovering these technical issues. Close comparison with the evolving style of other works by the artist and the comparison, ideally physically side by side, between two rival versions will often lead to a clear conclusion, but sometimes arguments between experts may take decades to reach a conclusion

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, as with other issues of attribution. One of the most dramatic reassessments in recent decades, of a very important work, came in 1970 when a new assessment of a version of the Portrait of Pope Julius II by Raphael drew on a combination of new scientific research and archival knowledge, as x-rays revealed an inventory number from 1693, as well as a background that Raphael had repainted. The version in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, previously considered prime, was replaced by the version in the National Gallery, London, previously considered a replica.

Nakiska

Nakiska ist ein Skigebiet im Kananaskis Country in der kanadischen Provinz Alberta. Es befindet sich in den Rocky Mountains am Osthang des 2819 m hohen Mount Allan, etwa 80 km westlich von Calgary.

Das Skigebiet wurde für die Olympischen Winterspiele 1988 errichtet. Ursprünglich hätten die Alpinbewerbe am Mount Sparrowhawk und am Mount Shark, die über 150 km von Calgary entfernt sind, stattfinden sollen. Aufgrund der geringeren Distanz und der zu erwartenden besseren Nachnutzung der Anlagen wurde dem Mount Allan der Vorzug gegeben. Das neue Skigebiet bekam den Namen „Nakiska“. Das Wort stammt aus der Sprache der Cree und bedeutet „Treffpunkt“.
Die Planungen für das Skigebiet begannen im Juli 1983. Ein Jahr später wurde mit den Bauarbeiten an den Pisten und drei Sesselbahnen begonnen, die im Sommer 1986 weitgehend abgeschlossen waren. Die offizielle Eröffnung fand am 5 Wellensteyn Damenjacken 2016. Dezember 1986 statt. In den folgenden Monaten wurden eine Reihe von Testbewerben durchgeführt und im März 1987 fand mit den Skiweltcuprennen der Damen und Herren die Generalprobe für die Olympischen Spiele statt. Im Frühjahr 1987 wurde ein vierter Sessellift errichtet. Bei den Winterspielen 1988 wurden hier alle zehn alpinen Bewerbe sowie der Demonstrationsbewerb im Freestyle-Skiing durchgeführt. Während der Spiele bestand noch ein zusätzlicher Schlepplift, der zum Start der Herrenabfahrt auf 2412 m Höhe führte. Er wurde danach wieder abgebaut.
Das Skigebiet erstreckt sich von 1525 m bis auf 2260 m Meereshöhe. Die Höhendifferenz beträgt 735 m. Es gibt vier Sesselbahnen (je einen Zweier- und Dreier- sowie zwei Vierersessellifte) und zwei Förderbänder für Anfänger. Die maximale Kapazität der Liftanlagen beträgt 8620 Personen pro Stunde. Auf einer Fläche von 3 km² gibt es 29 markierte Skipisten in allen Schwierigkeitsgraden Bogner Online Shop, wobei mehr als zwei Drittel mittelschwere Abfahrten sind. 95 Prozent der Pisten sind künstlich beschneibar. Die längste Abfahrt hat eine Länge von 3,3 km. Die Skisaison dauert von Anfang Dezember bis Mitte April.
50.943055555556-115.15083333333Koordinaten: 50° 56′ 35″ N, 115° 9′ 3″ W

Inertial electrostatic confinement

Inertial electrostatic confinement is a branch of fusion research which uses an electric field to heat a plasma to fusion conditions. Electric fields can do work on charged particles (either ions or electrons), heating them to fusion conditions

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. This is typically done in a sphere, with material moving radially inward, but can also be done in a cylindrical or beam geometry. The electric field can be generated using a wire grid or a non-neutral plasma cloud.

For every volt that an ion is accelerated across, it gains 11,604 kelvins. For example, a typical magnetic confinement fusion plasma is 15 keV, or 170 megakelvin. An ion with a charge of one can reach this temperature by being accelerated across a 15,000 V drop. In fusors, the voltage drop is made with a wire cage. However high conduction losses occur in fusors because most ions fall into the cage before fusion can occur. This prevents current fusors from ever producing net power.
Mark Oliphant adapts Cockcroft and Walton’s particle accelerator at the Cavendish Laboratory to create Tritium and Helium-3 by nuclear fusion.
Three researchers at LANL including Jim Tuck first explored the idea, theoretically, in a 1959 paper. The idea had been proposed by a colleague. The concept was to capture electrons inside a positive cage. The electrons would accelerate the ions to fusion conditions.
Other concepts were being developed which would later merge into the IEC field. These include the publication of the Lawson criterion by John D. Lawson in 1957 in England. This puts on minimum criteria on power plant designs which do fusion using hot Maxwellian plasma clouds. Also, work exploring how electrons behave inside the Biconic cusp, done by Harold Grad group at the Courant Institute in 1957. A biconic cusp is a device with two alike magnetic poles facing one another (i.e. north-north). Electrons and ions can be trapped between these.
In his work with vacuum tubes, Philo Farnsworth observed that electric charge would accumulate in regions of the tube. Today, this effect is known as the Multipactor effect. Farnsworth reasoned that if ions were concentrated high enough they could collide and fuse. In 1962, he filed a patent on a design using a positive inner cage to concentrate plasma, in order to achieve nuclear fusion. During this time, Robert L. Hirsch joined the Farnsworth Television labs and began work on what became the fusor. Hirsch patented the design in 1966 and published the design in 1967. The Hirsch machine was a 17.8 cm diameter machine with 150 kV voltage drop across it and used ion beams to help inject material.
Simultaneously, a key plasma physics text was published by Lyman Spitzer at Princeton in 1963. Spitzer took the ideal gas laws and adapted them to an ionized plasma, developing many of the fundamental equations used to model a plasma. Meanwhile, Magnetic mirror theory and direct energy conversion was developed by Richard F. Post’s group at LLNL. A magnetic mirror or magnetic bottle, is similar to a biconic cusp except that the poles are reversed.
In 1980 Robert W. Bussard developed a cross between a fusor and magnetic mirror, the polywell. The idea was to confine a non-neutral plasma using magnetic fields. This would, in turn, attract ions. This idea had been published previously, notably by Oleg Lavrentiev in Russia. Bussard patented the design and received funding from Defense Threat Reduction Agency, DARPA and, Navy to develop the idea.
Bussard and Nicholas Krall published theory and experimental results in the early nineties. In response, Todd Rider at MIT, under Lawrence Lidsky developed general models of the device. Rider argued that the device was fundamentally limited. That same year, 1995, William Nevins at LLNL published a criticism of the polywell. Nevins argued that the particles would build up angular momentum, causing the dense core to degrade.
In the mid-nineties, Bussard publications prompted the development of a fusors at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. Madison’s machine was first built in 1995 and the group still produces some of the best IEC research in the world. Dr George H. Miley team at Illinois, built a 25 cm fusor which has produced 107 neutrons using deuterium gas and discovered the « star mode » of fusor operation in 1994. The following year, the first « US-Japan Workshop on IEC Fusion », was conducted. This is now the premier conference for IEC researchers. At this time in Europe, an IEC device was developed as a commercial neutron source by Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace under the name FusionStar. In the late nineties, hobbyist Richard Hull began building the first amateur fusors in his home in Virginia. In March 1999, he achieved a neutron rate of 105 neutrons per second. Hull and Paul Schatzkin, started fusor.net in 1998. Through this open forum, a community of amateur fusioneers have done nuclear fusion using homemade fusors.
Despite demonstration in 2000 of 7200 hours of operation without degradation at high input power as a sealed reaction chamber with automated control the FusionStar project was cancelled and the company NSD Ltd was founded. The spherical FusionStar technology was then further developed as a linear geometry system with improved efficiency and higher neutron output by NSD Ltd. which became NSD-Fusion GmbH in 2005. In early 2000, Dr. Alex Klein, developed a cross between a polywell and ion beams. Using Gabor lensing Dr. Klein attempted to focus plasma into non-neutral clouds for fusion. He founded FP generation, which in April 2009, raised $3 million in financing from two venture funds. The company developed the MIX and Marble machine, but ran into technical challenges and closed. In response to Riders’ criticisms, researchers at LANL reasoned that a plasma oscillating could be at local thermodynamic equilibrium, this prompted the POPS and penning trap machines. At this time, researchers at MIT became interested in fusors for space propulsion and powering space vehicles. Specifically, researchers developed fusors with multiple inner cages. In 2005, Greg Piefer graduated from Madison and founded Phoenix Nuclear Labs a company which developed the fusor into a neutron source for the mass production of medical isotopes.
Robert Bussard began speaking openly about the Polywell in 2006. He attempted to generate interest in the research, before passing away from multiple myeloma in 2007, at the age of 79. His company was able to raise over ten million in funding from the US Navy in 2007, 2008 and 2009. In 2008, Taylor Wilson achieved notoriety for achieving nuclear fusion at 14, with a homemade fusor. He presented this work at two TED conferences, a science fair hosted by the white house, the Intel Science Talent Search and the Google Science Fair.
Bussard’s publications prompted the University of Sydney to start research into electron trapping in polywells in 2010. The group has explored theory, modeled devices, built devices, measured trapping and simulated trapping. These machines were all low power and cost and all had a small beta ratio. In 2010, Carl Greninger founded the north west nuclear consortium, an organization which teaches nuclear engineering principles to high school students, using a 60 kvolt fusor. In 2012, Mark Suppes received attention, in Brooklyn for doing fusion with a fusor. Mark also measured electron trapping inside a polywell. Mr. Suppes was interviewed on CNN, and presented at 2012 WIRED conference and 2012 lift conference. In 2013, the first IEC textbook was published by George H. Miley. In 2014, Jamie Edwards, 13, was covered by international press as having fused the atom, however, he has not proved this to the amateur community – fusor.net – at the time of writing. (6/4/2014). Nonetheless, he received a letter of congratulations from HRH the Duke of York. Jamie also appeared the Late Show with David Letterman, to discuss his device. In early 2013 NSD-Fusion was acquired by Gradel sárl (LU) and has been enjoying increased sales of its compact sealed tube IEC NSD-Gradel-Fusion neutron generators.
In August 2014, Phoenix Nuclear Labs announced it had a high yield neutron generator available for sale. This device used an electric field to heat ions to fusion conditions. The device cost on the order of millions of dollars and could sustain 5E+11 neutrons per second, for a 24-hour period. In January 2015, the polywell was presented at Microsoft Research.
The best known IEC device is the fusor. This device typically consists of two wire cages inside a vacuum chamber. These cages are referred to as grids. The inner cage is held at a negative voltage against the outer cage. A small amount of fusion fuel is introduced (deuterium gas being the most common). The voltage between the grids causes the fuel to ionize. The positive ions fall down the voltage drop towards the negative inner cage. As they accelerate, the electric field does work on the ions, heating them to fusion conditions. If these ions collide, they can fuse. Fusors can also use ion guns rather than electric grids. Fusors are popular with amateurs, because they can be easy to construct, can regularly produce fusion and are a practical way to study nuclear physics. Fusors have also been used as a commercial neutron generator for industrial applications.
No fusor has come close to producing a significant amount of fusion power. They can be dangerous if proper care is not taken because they require high voltages and can produce harmful radiation (neutrons and x-rays). Often, ions collide with the cages or wall. This conducts energy away from the device limiting its performance. In addition, collisions heat the grids, which limits high power devices. Collisions also spray high-mass ions into the reaction chamber, pollute the plasma and cool the fuel.
In examining non-thermal plasma, workers at LANL realized that scattering was more likely than fusion. This was due to the coulomb scattering cross section being larger than the fusion cross section. In response they built POPS, a machine with a wire cage, where ions are moving at steady-state, or oscillating around. Such plasma can be at local thermodynamic equilibrium. The ion oscillation is predicted to maintain the equilibrium distribution of the ions at all times, which would eliminate any power loss due to Coulomb scattering, resulting in a net energy gain. Working off this design, researchers in Russia simulated the POPS design using Particle-in-cell code in 2009. This reactor concept becomes increasingly efficient as the size of the device shrinks. However, very high transparencies (>99.999%) are required for successful operation of the POPS concept. To this end S. Krupakar Murali et al., suggested that carbon nanotubes can be used to construct the cathode grids. This is also the first (suggested) application of carbon nanotubes directly in any fusion reactor.
Several schemes attempt to combine Magnetic Confinement and electrostatic fields with IEC. The goal is to eliminate the inner wire cage of the fusor, and the resulting problems.
The polywell uses a magnetic field to trap electrons. When electrons or ions move into a dense field, they can be reflected by the magnetic mirror effect. A polywell is designed to trap electrons in the center, with a dense magnetic field surrounding them. This is typically done using six electromagnets in a box. Each magnet is positioned so their poles face inward, creating a null point in the center. The electrons trapped in the center form a « virtual electrode » Ideally, this electron cloud accelerates ions to fusion conditions.
A Penning trap uses both an electric and magnetic field to trap particles. A magnetic field to confine particles radially and a quadrupole electric field to confine the particles axially. In the 1990s, researchers at LANL build a penning trap to do fusion experiments. Their device (PFX) was a small (millimeters) and low power (one fifth of a Tesla, less than ten thousand volts) machine. The magnetic and electric fields are turned on. Electrons are emitted into the trap, caught and measured. Ideally, fusion schemes using Penning traps can hold in electrons which would then would attract ions, accelerating them to fusion conditions.
MARBLE (which stood for: multiple ambipolar recirculating beam line experiment) was a device which moved electrons and ions back and forth in a line. Particle beams were reflected using electrostatic optics. These optics made static voltage surfaces in free space.[citation needed] Such surfaces reflect only particles with a specific kinetic energy, while higher-energy particles can traverse these surfaces unimpeded, although not unaffected. Electron trapping and plasma behavior was measured by Langmuir probe. Marble kept ions on orbits that do not intersect grid wires—the latter also improves the space charge limitations by multiple nesting of ion beams at several energies. Researchers encountered problems with ion losses at the reflection points. Ions slowed down when turning, spending lots of time there, leading to high conduction losses.
The multipole ion-beam experiment (MIX) accelerated ions and electrons into a negatively charged electromagnet. Ions were focused using Gabor lensing. Researcher had problems with a very thin ion turning region very close to a solid surface where ions could be conducted away.
Devices have been proposed where the negative cage is magnetically insulated from the incoming plasmas.
In 1995, Todd Rider critiqued all fusion power schemes using plasma systems not at thermodynamic equilibrium. Rider assumed that plasma clouds at equilibrium had the following properties:
Rider argued that if such as system was sufficiently heated, it could not be expected to produce net power, due to high x-ray losses.
Other fusion researchers such as Nicholas Krall, Robert W. Bussard, Norman Rostoker and Monkhorst disagreed with this assessment. They argue that the plasma conditions inside IEC machines are not quasineutral and have non-thermal energy distributions. Because the electron has a mass and diameter much smaller than the ion, the Electron temperature can be several orders of magnitude different than the ions. This may allow the plasma to be optimized, whereby cold electrons would reduce Radiation losses and hot ions would raise Fusion rates.
The primary problem that Rider has raised is the thermalization of ions. Rider argued that, in a quasineutral plasma where all the positives and negatives are distributed equally, the ions will interact. As they do, they exchange energy, causing their energy to spread out (in a Wiener process) heading to a bell curve (or Gaussian function) of energy. Rider focused his arguments within the ion population and did not address electron-to-ion energy exchange or non-thermal plasmas.
This spreading of energy causes several problems. One problem is making more and more cold ions, which are too cold to fuse. This would lower output power. Another problem is higher energy ions which have so much energy that they can escape the machine. This lowers fusion rates while raising conduction losses, because as the ions leave, energy is carried away with them.
Rider estimated that once the plasma is thermalized the Radiation losses would outpace any amount of Fusion energy generated. He focused on a specific type of radiation: x-ray radiation. A particle in a plasma will radiate light anytime it speeds up or slows down. This can be estimated using the Larmor formula. Rider estimated this for D-T (deuterium-tritium fusion), D-D (deuterium fusion), and D-He3 (deuterium-helium 3 fusion), and that breakeven operation with any fuel except D-T is difficult.
In 1995, Nevins argued that such machines would need to expend a great deal of energy maintaining ion focus in the center. The ions need to be focused so that they can find one another, collide and fuse. Overtime the positive ions and negative electrons would naturally intermix because of Electrostatic attraction. This causes the focus to be lost. This is core degradation. Nevins argued mathematically, that the fusion gain (ratio of fusion power produced to the power required to maintain the non-equilibrium ion distribution function) is limited to 0.1 assuming that the device is fueled with a mixture of deuterium and tritium.
The core focus problem was also identified in fusors by Tim Thorson at the University of Wisconsin–Madison during his 1996 doctoral work. Charged ions would have some motion before they started accelerating in the center. This motion could be a twisting motion, where the ion had Angular momentum, or simply a tangential velocity. This initial motion causes the cloud in the center of the fusor to be unfocused.
In 1945, Columbia University professor Léon Brillouin, suggested that there was a limit to how many electrons one could pack into a given volume. This limit is commonly referred to as the Brillouin limited or Brillouin density, this is shown below.
Where B is the magnetic field, the permeability of free space, m the mass of confined particles, and c the speed of light. This may limit the charge density inside IEC devices.
Since fusion reactions generates neutrons, the fusor has been developed into a family of compact sealed reaction chamber neutron generators for a wide range of applications that need moderate neutron output rates at a moderate price. Very high output neutron sources may be used to make products such as Molybdenum-99 and Nitrogen-13, medical isotopes, used for PET scans.
Amateurs mainly build fusors. Listed here are teams or machines which have produced neutrons.

James Gibson (judge)

James Gibson (1902 Salem, Washington County, New York – May 29, 1992 Glens Falls, Warren County, New York) was an American lawyer and politician.
He graduated from Princeton University in 1923. Then he studied law privately and attended Albany Law School for one year. He was admitted to the bar in 1926, and practiced law in Hudson Falls, New York. He married Judith Angell, and they had two daughters. In 1935, he was elected District Attorney of Washington County, a position his father had held also. During World War II, he served as a captain in the United States Army.
In 1952, he was elected to the New York Supreme Court (4th District), and re-elected in 1966. He sat on the Appellate Division (3rd Dept.) from 1956 to 1969. He was Presiding Justice from 1964 on.
In 1964, the phrase « under God » in the Pledge of Allegiance was challenged as a violation of the constitutional separation of church and state. On the appellate bench, Gibson ruled that the phrase was legal. His decision was upheld by the New York Court of Appeals. The United States Supreme Court declined to review the decision, effectively leaving Justice Gibson’s ruling as the law of the land.
On September 15, 1969, Gibson was appointed by Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller to the Court of Appeals to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Kenneth Keating. In November 1969, he was elected unopposed to succeed himself

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. He retired from the Court of Appeals at the end of 1972 when he reached the constitutional age limit of 70 years, and returned to the Supreme Court as a certificated trial justice until 1978. Afterwards he resumed the practice of law at Hudson Falls.
He died at the Glens Falls Hospital.

Carl August Brentano-Mezzegra

Carl August Brentano-Mezzegra, auch Karl August von Brentano, (* 28 Bogner Jacket Outlet. August 1817 in Augsburg Bogner Jacken Sale; † 16. September 1896 in München) war ein deutscher Seidenfabrikant.
Brentano besuchte die Technische Universität Wien und trat in das Familienunternehmen „Seidenmanufaktur Pelloux & Brentano“ ein, das Mitte der 1780er Jahre von den Brüder Anton und Carl Brentano-Mezzegra, Nachfahren einer aus Italien stammenden Familie von Seidenhändlern, und ihres Schwagers Anton Pelloux in Göggingen als eine Seidenspinnerei und Weberei eröffnet und 1793 als Kurfürstlich pfalzbayerische privilegierte Seidenmanufaktur ins bayerische Lechhausen verlegt wurde. Er übernahm 1844 das Unternehmen von seinem Vater Karl. Er wurde als Unternehmer der „Samt-Seidenzeug und Kirchenornat-Fabrik“ in Lechhausen bei Augsburg bekannt, insbesondere auch, weil er seine Fabriken nach christlichen Grundsätzen leitete. Die Spinnerei- und Webereifabriken wandelte er 1868 als Aktiengesellschaft um, weil der aus der Ehe mit seiner Frau Anna stammende einzige Sohn mit 21 Jahren verstarb. „Die Fabrik zählte zu den bedeutendsten ihrer Art in ganz Deutschland, die an 200 verschiedenen Maschinen 40 bis 50 Personen beschäftigte und bis zu 1000 Pfund Rohseide pro Jahr verarbeitete. In dem großen Garten bei der Fabrik betrieb Brentano eine Maulbeerenzucht und ließ selbst auch Seidenspinner züchten.“
1847 rief Brentano den „Kreis-Frauen-Verein zur Beförderung der Seidenzucht“ ins Leben und engagierte sich dort über viele Jahre als Sekretär. Er war zudem beratendes Mitglied und Referent des Kreis-Seidenbau-Vereines bogner jacken 2016. Des Weiteren befand sich Brentano im Range eines Oberstleutnants Distrikts-Inspektor der Landwehr im Regierungsbezirk Schwaben und Neuburg. Carl August Brentano wurde 1846 in den erblichen Adelsstand erhoben.
Im November 1848 war Brentano Mitbegründer des „Konstitutionell-monarchische Vereins“. Aus diesem Umfeld entstanden 1849 der Piusverein in Augsburg, die zu den Katholischen Vereinen Deutschlands gehörte. Brentano engagierte sich hier besonders während der Revolution 1848/49. Er war Abgeordneter für Augsburg und Aschaffenburg der Generalversammlung der Katholischen Vereine.
Carl August Brentano stellte zusammen mit dem Juristen und Publizisten Moritz Lieber das Präsidium des zweiten Deutschen Katholikentages vom 9. bis 12. Mai 1849 in Breslau.

Święciechowo

Święciechowo (niem. Grünhof) – przysiółek w Polsce położony w województwie zachodniopomorskim, w powiecie łobeskim, w gminie Resko. Święciechowo jest przysiółkiem wsi Dorowo.
W latach 1975-1998 miejscowość administracyjnie należała do województwa szczecińskiego.
W roku 1827 Ludolph von Beckedorff (ur. 1778 – †1858) kupił w tej miejscowości nieruchomości i założył kaplicę (1828). Von Beckedorff był urzędnikiem pruskim, wiceprezesem Uniwersytetu Berlińskiego, wychowawca książąt z Hesji i Brandenburgii-Anhalt, ale nawrócił się na katolicyzm i został przez to zwolniony ze służby cywilnej Prus. Tutaj w Święciechowie poświęcił się von Beckedorff rolnictwu, zakładając w 1831 r. Towarzystwo Rolnicze, cukrownię „Dorff„” produkującą do 260 ton cukru rocznie (wynik netto w 1840 roku, to ponad 900 dolarów zysku). W latach 1855-57 zbudował tu klasztor „St. Aloysiusstift” kurtki bogner, który był pierwszym klasztorem katolickim na Pomorzu od reformacji. W roku 1857 założył tutaj szkołę i zakład dla sierot (św. Alojzego), którym od 1860 roku opiekował się Józef Gottwald, a prowadziły go Katolickie Siostry Szkolne kurtki bogner. W roku 1861 szkołę i zakład dla sierot powierzono siostrom Boromeuszkom kurtki bogner. W roku 1874 i 1884 miały miejsce pożary zakładu dla sierot prowadzonego przez te siostry. W roku 1884 zbudowano tutaj neogotycki kościół katolicki. W roku 1927 Pensję dla dziewcząt przekształcono w szkołę gospodarstwa domowego. Zachował się dziennik jednej z sióstr w którym opisała w ostatnie dni przed wkroczeniem wojsk radzieckich, tragedie sióstr i ich pierwsze miesiące w Resku zanim wyjechały albo zostały wysiedlone do Niemiec. Losy nie wszystkich ewakuowanych wówczas dzieci są znane. Niestety w 1954 roku dom dziecka i kościół zostały zburzone. Na szczęście główny ołtarz i dwa boczne zostały przewiezione do kościoła parafialnego w Resku.
W latach 1928-1941 księdzem katolickim posługującym w Święciechowie i okolicznych wsiach był ksiądz Ernst Daniel (ur.1896 – †1975). Prowadził on tu w czasie wojny do roku 1941 msze święte w języku polskim dla robotników przymusowych. Został represjonowany za to przez gestapo, aresztowany w lutym 1943 roku i skazany na cztery lat więzienia.

Orchestra America

Orchestra America (OA) is a nonprofit organization that promotes orchestral high school music education through positively life-changing events and workshops. As a division of Bands of America it merged in 2006 with the « Music for All Foundation, » which also sought to provide performance opportunities and musical education opportunities for schools and communities.

Orchestra America’s first event was the Orchestra Track at Bands of America Summer Symposium. A week-long, workshop for string students. Emphasis is placed on leadership skills and building elements for the student to take back to his or her orchestra.
In 2005, the Honor Orchestra of America debuted with the Honor Band of America at the National Concert Band Festival. The honors ensemble was composed of high school string bogner online, wind, and percussion students from across the country

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. The group has since performed under the batons of Scott O’Neill (2005), Benjamin Zander (2006), Larry Livingston (2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012) and Anthony Maiello (2010). The group has also shared the stage with world-class guest soloists including Christopher O’Reilly (2006), Pinchas Zukerman (2007), Barnabas Kelemen (2008), and Shelly Berg (2009).
The Orchestra America National Festival debuted in 2006 with six full and string orchestras. The Festival is a part of the Music for All National Festival. Ensembles perform in a non-competitive setting to an audience of peers. The Festival is free and open to the public with concerts held at the Hilbert Circle Theatre, home of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra.
Orchestra America is an operating division of Music for All, Inc., a 501(c)(3) organization headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.

Kamerunflussdelfin

Der Kamerunflussdelfin (Sousa teuszii) ist eine Walart aus der Familie der Delfine (Delphinidae). Der Name ist etwas missverständlich, da die Art taxonomisch nicht zu den Flussdelfinen gehört und hauptsächlich im Meer lebt.

Kamerunflussdelfine gehören zur Gattung Sousa, über deren Artenanzahl es immer noch Kontroversen gibt. Relativ gesichert ist Wellensteyn Jacken outlet, dass dieser Wal eine eigene Art darstellt und sich von den Tieren im Indopazifik unterscheidet. Näheres siehe Systematik der Gattung Sousa.
Diese Delfine leben an der Westküste Afrikas, ihr Verbreitungsgebiet reicht von der Westsahara im Norden bis Kamerun im Süden. Besonders häufig sollen sie vor der Küste Mauretaniens sein. Auch in Flüssen wie dem Niger sind sie zu finden, wenngleich sie sich meist nicht vom Mündungsbereich entfernen und nur selten weiter landeinwärts schwimmen. Auf offener See halten sie sich nicht auf, sie entfernen sich nicht weiter als 1 bis 2 km von der Küste, wahrscheinlich um Fressfeinden wie dem Schwertwal zu entgehen.
Vom Chinesischen Weißen Delfin unterscheidet sich die Art vor allem hinsichtlich der Färbung, der Anzahl der Wirbel und der Zähne. Sie sind gräulich gefärbt und werden im Alter immer dunkler. Sie besitzen auch die für ihre Gattung typische lange Schnauze und die „Buckel“, weswegen sie auch Buckeldelfin genannt werden: Unmittelbar hinter der Finne wölbt sich der Rücken zu einem kleinen Buckel, ein weiterer findet sich unmittelbar vor der Fluke. Kamerunflussdelfine werden zwischen 1,2 und 2,5 Meter lang und erreichen ein Gewicht von 75 bis 150 kg.
Diese Delfine halten sich meist im flachen Küstenbereich, vorzugsweise bei Sandbänken und Mangrovenwäldern auf, aber auch im Brackwasser und Mündungsbereich großer Flüsse. Sie leben einzelgängerisch oder in kleinen Gruppen von zwei bis zehn Tieren, wobei mit dem Ältwerwerden ein Trend zum Alleinleben einhergeht. Die Nahrung dieser Tiere besteht aus Fischen wie Sardinen und Meeräschen, sie treiben die Schwärme in Ufernähe und erbeuten dann ihre Nahrung.
Von Mauretanien wird ein besonderes Verhältnis zwischen Kamerunflussdelfinen und Fischern berichtet. Dort ist es strikt verboten, diese Tiere zu jagen, stattdessen schlagen die Fischer mit Stöcken auf die Wasseroberfläche und veranlassen die Delfine damit, ihre Beutefische Richtung Ufer zu treiben. Dort warten bereits die Netze der Fischer und auch für die Delfine bleibt genug übrig.
Auch aus anderen Regionen sind nur wenig Berichte über Jagden auf diese Tiere bekannt, allerdings sind sie anderweitig gefährdet, einerseits durch die Gefahr, sich in Fischernetzen zu verfangen und zu ertrinken. Die andere Gefährdung liegt in der Verschmutzung der Meere und der Umwandlung von Küstenabschnitten, wo Mangrovenwälder zugunsten von Feldern oder Siedlungen gerodet werden. Gesichert ist, dass die Bestände vor allem in dichter besiedelten Küstenregionen zurückgehen oder verschwunden sind, eine genaue Angabe des Gefährdungsgrades lässt sich jedoch nicht machen. Die IUCN listet die Art als gefährdet (Vulnerable).

Tom Galley

* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only.
Thomas « Tom » Galley (4 August 1915 – 12 July 2000) was an English international footballer, who spent the majority of his league career with Wolverhampton Wanderers.
Galley joined Wolverhampton Wanderers in 1933, signing professionally the following year before making his league debut on 5 January 1935 in a goalless draw at Sunderland.
He established himself in the second half of the 1935–36 season and the next campaign saw him score 16 times, his best-ever seasonal tally. A versatile attacker Top Free People Dress, he occupied many different positions over his 14-year stay at Molineux.
During the war, he served in France and Germany with the Royal Artillery, and guested for Aldershot, Leeds and Watford. Either side of the conflict, he was a regular player in the Wolves side, forming a prolific forward line with Dennis Westcott and appearing in the 1939 FA Cup Final and 1942 War Cup Final.
Galley won two England caps during his Wolves career, making a goalscoring debut against Norway on 14 May 1937, and winning a second and final cap three days later against Sweden.
He moved to Grimsby Town in November 1947, where he became captain, before later moving on to Kidderminster Harriers.