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Wraaktragedie

Een wraaktragedie (van het Engelse revenge tragedy of revenge play) is een tragedie waarin het dramatisch doel van het hoofdpersonage vergelding of wraak is om hem aangedaan leed. Typerend voor deze theatervorm is het expliciet geweld dat wordt getoond in vaak bloederige taferelen. De wraaktragedie dankt haar ontstaan aan de Romeinse tragedieschrijver en filosoof Seneca.

Enkele vroege Elizabethaanse tragedies, zoals Gorboduc (1561) van Thomas Sackville en Thomas Norton, vertonen invloed van Seneca’s tragedies. Het bekendste voorbeeld van een revenge tragedy tijdens de Engelse renaissance was echter Thomas Kyds The Spanish Tragedy. Onder invloed van dit stuk werd de wraaktragedie vooral in Engeland een populair genre. Een ander literair hoogtepunt van de wraaktragedie is William Shakespeares Hamlet.

Thomas Kyd pakte met zijn toneelstuk The Spanish Tragedy (1590) nog bloederiger uit dan Seneca: het element van ‘met voorbedachten rade’ speelde een veel grotere rol natural meat tenderiser. De voorstelling van Kyds stuk bracht een schok teweeg bij het Engels publiek water proof phone, want zoiets gruwelijks was nog nooit in Engeland vertoond. In Kyds stuk wordt Hieronimo funny soccer t shirts, een Spaans edelman, tot waanzin gedreven door de moord op zijn zoon. Als hij tussen vlagen van krankzinnigheid door ontdekt wie de moordenaars zijn, plant hij zijn wraak zorgvuldig. Hij doodt de moordenaars en vervolgens zichzelf. De invloed van het stuk is duidelijk merkbaar in Shakespeares Hamlet (opgevoerd in 1600-1601) en andere toneelstukken uit die periode. De revenge tragedy bloeide vooral tijdens het bewind van Elizabeth I en Jacobus I. Voorbeelden van andere revenge plays zijn:

Andere toneelstukken in de traditie van de wraaktragedie waren Christopher Marlowes The Jew of Malta, Cyril Tourneurs The Revenger’s Tragedy how to tenderize, John Websters The Duchess of Malfi en John Fords ‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore.

Talrijke bewerkingen zijn van revenge plays gemaakt. Behalve verfilmingen van Hamlet horen hier ook bij:

LandNet Rwanda Chapter

LandNet Rwanda Chapter is part of LandNet Africa and is a network of local Rwandan organizations and international NGO’s which deals with land issues. The idea of LandNet Rwanda Chapter is to bring together academicians, policy makers and the civil society to discuss together about land issues. At the moment LandNet Rwanda is hosted by the Rwandan Initiative for Sustainable development (RISD)

LandNet Rwanda Chapter was officially launched on 21 September 2000

Rwanda is one of the poorest countries in Africa but has the highest population density of all African countries with about 370 persons/km2. The annual growth rate of Rwanda is very with 3.3% very high; the population is currently over 10 million and is expected to increase to about 13 million in 2020. Of these 10 million almost 90% are dependent on agriculture for their living, 93% of all women and 81% of all men. 80% of the land related disputes arise from community or family levels stainless steel water jug, most of the time one piece of land is claimed by multiple groups and 90% of these disputes affect vulnerable groups, like women, who are often discriminated in land disputes concerning for example inheritance cases.

Currently how to tenderize, the government of Rwanda is exercising a nationwide land reform called the Land Tenure Regularization Program (LTRP), which is aiming at addressing land related problems and ending gender based discrimination in land access. LandNet Rwanda Chapter is monitoring the LTRP and provides data through research for policy makers from which they can conclude the success of the LTRP. Also LandNet is reviewing existing laws and policies in order to improve them. LandNet Rwanda Chapter trains local leaders to be able to solve land disputes peacefully and fairly. LandNet Rwanda is organizing campaigns to inform the public about relevant land issues through sharing information among members and raising the concerns of the grassroots for advocacy and inclusion in the national policies.

Currently, LandNet Rwanda Chapter has 32 members remington shaver saver. LandNet Rwanda Chapter differentiates between core members, which often attend LandNet Rwanda meetings and actively participate in the Network and members, which just wish to share experiences or ideas about land issues without being a core member.

Steering Committee Members:

General Members:

The Heavenly Sign

Nishan-e-Asmani (First published June 1892) (English: The Heavenly Sign) also called Shahadat-ul-Mulhimeen (English: The Testimony of the Recipients of Revelation) is a book in Urdu, by Hadrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, India, claimant to be the promised Messiah and Mahdi, Founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat. The English rendering of Nishan-e-Asmani was done by Muhammad Akram Ghauri, published by The Islam International Publications Ltd. ‘Islamabad’ Sheephatch Lane,Tilford, Surrey GU10 2AQ, United Kingdom (2005).

To support his claims, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad has quoted ‘verses’ from the well-known work of the 14th Century Sufi poet Shah Nimatullah Wali (1330-1431), predicting the Appearance of Messiah and Mahdi. (Qaseeda Shah Nimatullah Wali quoted by Shah Ismail Shaheed (1779-1831) in his book Al-Arba’in fi Ahwal-al-Mahdiyin (pages: 49-52) Published 1851).

Some Verses from above:

« I do not say all this by reading the stars: Nay! I relate what God Almighty has told me. Immediately after the passage of twelve hundred years, I see terrible things happening.

I see that a new coin is struck, Whose value is less than it seems.

I see the face of the moon darkened; And the heart of the sun I see wounded.

I envision the joy of meeting the Sweetheart; I envision the rising of the sun of a happy spring.

When his tenure comes to its successful end, I see that he will be succeeded by his illustrious son.

I foresee that aristocrats and nobles; Will become his faithful disciples.

He resembles the Holy Prophet in his appearance; And I find him to be of placid disposition and I see him as the universally accepted leader; The whole world following him faithfully.

I see the name of that illustrious personage written; And I read: Alif, Ha, Mim, and Dal (A H M aD)

With his advent I see that the faith of the world shall prosper; And mankind will float upon a wave of good fortune.

I see that he is the Mahdi and the Messiah of the age; And he is the champion in both capacities.

I see the whole world has become like one big city…. « 

In this short treatise upon Shah Nimatullah Wali’s (1330-1431) predictions, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad claims it testifies to his being the Mahdi and Messiah, appearing in the Thirteenth century (Hijri), within a new Government in India (The British Government)[… new Coin is struck]. The prophecy of The Messiah and Mahdi to be followed by an illustrious SON also applies to him, he wrote. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad had prophesied that he shall be followed by a son, who shall be like him in his qualities. He claimed the Prophecy of Shah Nimatullah Wali mentioning the name of the coming reformer as AHMAD, was about him, which is his name. The book, Arba‘in Fi Ahwalil Mahdiyyin, which Mirza Ghulam Ahmad commented upon, had been published on 25 Muharram 1268 (Hijri)[19 November 1851 C.E.]., a person claiming to be the Messiah and Mahdi of the Age. Ahmad writes,  » It is evident that during the last thirteen hundred years none other than myself has proclaimed to be the Promised ‘Isa…And he is the champion in both capacities. This means that he shall be the Mahdi as well as ‘Isa, and shall be endowed with both attributes which will be manifested in him. This last couplet is a wonderful elucidation from which it can be clearly understood that drinking water from glass bottles, by the command of God, he will also claim to be Jesus » (page-33). It is also claimed that the verse how to tenderize,  » I see the face of the moon darkened; And the heart of the sun I see wounded. « , foretells about the Sign of the Eclipse of the Sun and Moon in the month of Ramadhan on the appointed dates.

The next testimony, Ahmad claims is the vision of one Gulab Shah. A Majdhoob who came to Qadian about 30 years before Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s claims, to be the Messiah and predicted that Jesus will appear shortly in Qadian. One Karim Bakhsh who narrated this vision to Hadrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad said:  » It was by the sheer mercy of God, the Exalted, that about thirty years ago, a godly man, a wanderer of the desolate places, a Majdhub, told me things that have now become magnificent signs for me water bottle buy online. These Prophecies have convinced me of the truth of Mirza Sahib so firmly, that even if someone were to cut me to pieces, I would care the least for my life. Just as the day dawns and no one has any doubts about it, so did it become clear to me, that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian is undoubtedly the same Promised Messiah whose advent had been foretold and who was named ‘Isa (Jesus) in the scriptures….That revered saint once said to me: ‘Jesus has come of age now and he will come to Ludhiana, and point out the errors in the Qur’an, and will make judgments according to the Qur’an.’… Again he said: ‘The Ulema will reject him vehemently.’ (page-40-42) ».